Prospects of Religious Freedom Appear Grim in Islamic Maldives
Two years after political reforms, freedom of faith nowhere in sight.
MAL√Č, Maldives, August 10 MPBS24/7 REPORT From(CDN) ‚ÄĒ Visitors to this Islamic island nation get a sense of religious restrictions even before they arrive. The arrival-departure cards given to arriving airline passengers carry a list of items prohibited under Maldivian laws ‚Äď including ‚Äúmaterials contrary to Islam.‚ÄĚ
After Saudi Arabia, the Maldives is the only nation that claims a 100-percent Muslim population. The more than 300,000 people in the Maldives, an Indian Ocean archipelago featuring 1,192 islets 435 miles southwest of Sri Lanka, are all Sunnis.
This South Asian nation, however, has more than 70,000 expatriate workers representing several non-Islamic religions, including Christianity.
Also, around 60,000 tourists, mainly from Europe, visit each year to enjoy the blue ocean and white beaches and normally head straight to one of the holiday resorts built on around 45 islands exclusively meant for tourism. Tourists are rarely taken to the other 200 inhabited islands where locals live.
Nearly one-third of the population lives in the capital city of Mal√©, the only island where tourists and Maldivians meet.
While the Maldivians do not have a choice to convert out of Islam or to become openly atheist, foreigners in the country can practice their religion only privately.
In previous years several Christian expats have either been arrested for attending worship in private homes or denied visas for several months or years on suspicion of being connected with mission agencies.
According to ‚Äúliberal estimates,‚ÄĚ the number of Maldivian Christians or seekers ‚Äúcannot be more than 15,‚ÄĚ said one source.
‚ÄúEven if you engage any Maldivian in a discussion on Christianity and the person reports it to authorities, you can be in trouble,‚ÄĚ the source said. ‚ÄúA Maldivian youth studying in Sri Lanka became a Christian recently, but when his parents came to know about it, they took him away. We have not heard from him since then.‚ÄĚ
The source added that such instances are not uncommon in the Maldives.
‚ÄúI wish I could attend church, but I am too scared to look for one,‚ÄĚ said a European expat worker. ‚ÄúI have not even brought my Bible here; I read it online. I don‚Äôt want to take any chances.‚ÄĚ
The British reportedly translated the Bible into the local language, Dhivehi, and made it available in the 19th century, as the Maldives was a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965. Today no one knows how the Dhivehi Bible ‚Äúdisappeared.‚ÄĚ
‚ÄúA new translation has been underway for years, and it is in no way near completion,‚ÄĚ said the source who requested anonymity.
Religion Excluded from Rights
The 2008 constitution, adopted five years after a popular movement for human rights began, states that a ‚Äúnon-Muslim may not become a citizen of the Maldives.‚ÄĚ
Abdulla Yameen, brother of the former dictator of the Maldives and leader of the People‚Äôs Alliance party, an ally of the opposition Dhivehi Raiyyathunge Party (Maldivian People‚Äôs Party or DRP), told Compass that the issue of religious freedom was ‚Äúinsignificant‚ÄĚ for the Maldives.
‚ÄúThere‚Äôs no demand for it from the public,‚ÄĚ Yameen said. ‚ÄúIf you take a public poll, 99 percent of the citizens will say ‚Äėno‚Äô to religious freedom.‚ÄĚ
Maldivians are passionate about their religion, Yameen added, referring to a recent incident in which a 37-year-old Maldivian citizen, Mohamed Nazim, was attacked after he told a gathering that he was not a Muslim. On May 28, before a crowd of around 11,000 Maldivians, Nazim told a visiting Indian Muslim televangelist, Zakir Naik, that although he was born to a practicing Muslim family, he was ‚Äústruggling to believe in religions.‚ÄĚ
He also asked Naik about his ‚Äúverdict on Islam.‚ÄĚ The question enraged an angry crowd, with many calling for Nazim‚Äôs death while others beat him. He received several minor injuries before police took him away.
‚ÄúSee how the public went after his [Nazim‚Äôs] throat,‚ÄĚ said Yameen, who studied at Claremont Graduate University in California. When asked if such passion was good for a society, he replied, ‚ÄúYes. We are an Islamic nation, and our religion is an important part of our collective identity.‚ÄĚ
Asked if individuals had no rights, his terse answer was ‚ÄúNo.‚ÄĚ Told it was shocking to hear his views, he said, ‚ÄúWe are also shocked when a nation legalizes gay sex.‚ÄĚ
Mohamed Zahid, vice president of the Human Rights Commission of the Maldives, told Compass that the country has its own definition of human rights.
‚ÄúIt is to protect people‚Äôs rights under the sharia [Islamic law] and other international conventions with the exception of religious freedom,‚ÄĚ he said. ‚ÄúWe are a sovereign nation, and we follow our own constitution.‚ÄĚ
Zahid and several other local sources told Compass that the issue of religious rights was ‚Äúirrelevant‚ÄĚ for Maldivians. ‚ÄúNot more than 100 people in the country want religious freedom,‚ÄĚ Zahid said.
Politics of Religion
Former President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, a virtual dictator for 30 years until 2008, is generally held responsible for creating an atmosphere of religious restrictions in the Maldives, as he sought to homogenize religion in the country by introducing the state version of Sunni Islam. He also led a major crackdown on Christians.
The Protection of Religious Unity Act, enacted in 1994, was an endeavor to tighten the government‚Äôs control over mosques and all other Islamic institutions. The Gayoom administration even wrote Friday sermons to be delivered in mosques.
In 1998, Gayoom began a crackdown on alleged missionary activities.
‚ÄúA radio station based out of India used to air Christian programs via the Seychelles, but the government came to know about it and ensured that they were discontinued with the help of the government in the Seychelles,‚ÄĚ said a local Muslim source.
That year, Gayoom reportedly arrested around 50 Maldivians who were suspected to have converted to Christianity and deported 19 foreign workers accused of doing missionary work. A source said Gayoom apparently wanted to regain popularity at a time when his leadership was being questioned.
When the archipelago became a multi-party democracy in October 2008, new President Mohamed Nasheed, a former journalist and activist, was expected to pursue a liberal policy as part of the country‚Äôs reforms agenda.
Although Nasheed is the president, his party, the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP), has only 28 members and the support of four independents in the 77-member People‚Äôs Majlis (Maldives‚Äô unicameral Parliament). Gayoom, now in his 70s and the leader of the largest opposition party, the DRP, has a simple majority ‚Äď which presents difficulties in governance. Nasheed pleads helplessness in implementing reforms, citing an intransigent opposition.
Today Gayoom‚Äôs party accuses President Nasheed of not being able to protect the country‚Äôs distinct identity and culture, which the opposition says are rooted in Islam. The Gayoom-led parliament recently sought to impeach the education minister for proposing to make Islam and Dhivehi lessons optional ‚Äď rather than mandatory ‚Äď in high school.
To pre-empt the impeachment move, the whole cabinet of Nasheed resigned on June 29, which caused a major political crisis that led to violent street protests. The Nasheed administration allegedly arrested some opposition members, including Gayoom‚Äôs brother, Yameen. Political tensions and uncertainties continued at press time.
Now that President Nasheed‚Äôs popularity is declining ‚Äď due to perceptions that he has become as authoritarian as his predecessor ‚Äď it is feared that, amid immense pressure by the opposition to follow conservative policies, he might begin to follow in Gayoom‚Äôs footsteps.
Both the ruling and opposition parties admit that Islamic extremism has grown in the country. In October 2007, a group of young Maldivians engaged government security forces in a fierce shootout on Himandhoo Island.
Nasheed‚Äôs party alleges that Gayoom‚Äôs policy of promoting the state version of Sunni Islam created an interest to discern ‚Äútrue Islam,‚ÄĚ with extremists from Pakistan stepping in to introduce ‚Äújihadism‚ÄĚ in the Maldives. The DRP, on the other hand, says that behind the growth of extremism is the current government‚Äôs liberal policy of allowing Muslims of different sects to visit the Maldives to preach and give lectures, including the conservative Sunni sect of ‚ÄúWahhabis.‚ÄĚ
Until the early 1990s, Maldivian women would hardly wear the black burqa (covering the entire body, except the eyes and hands), and no men would sport a long beard ‚Äď outward marks of Wahhabi Muslims, said the Muslim source, adding that ‚Äútoday the practice has become common.‚ÄĚ
Still, Islam as practiced in the Maldives is pragmatic and unlike that of Saudi Arabia, he said. ‚ÄúPeople here are liberal and open-minded.‚ÄĚ
As extremism grows, though, it is feared that radical Islamists may go to any extent to extra-judicially punish anyone suspected of being a missionary or having converted away from Islam, and that they can pressure the government to remain indifferent to religious freedom.
How long will it take for the Maldives to allow religious freedom?
‚ÄúMaybe after the Maldivian government legalizes gay sex,‚ÄĚ the Muslim source joked.